[ 1 ]         Library Research

[ 2 ]  Final design Research


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Eadweard Muybridge

Known as the 'father of the motion picture'This extensive work depicted men, women and children variously running, jumping, falling and carrying out athletic or mundane activities. This section of Muybridge's work reiterates the imperative Muybridge felt to explore time in modernity, as explored here through 'Animals in Motion'. However, it also depicts, and perhaps helps consolidate a specifically American set of contemporary aspirations and ideals surrounding identity at Pennsylvania University.In his motion photography, Muybridge only used one non-white model - Ben Bailey - a mixed race male. Interestingly, Muybridge never used an anthropometric grid behind his subjects until he photographed Bailey, and never photographed the human figure without one afterwards (Brown, 2005 p637).Muybridge?s photographs of white males helped define a new positive set of ideals surrounding masculinity. These males were athletic, but not so overtly muscular, and represented a wider societal desire for young white males to achieve both intellectual and physical excellence; itself a subversion of stereotypes born from the previous generation of American intellectuals, who had suffered widely from neurasthenia.Just as ideals of maleness were embodied by Muybridge's photography, so were images of femininity. These were more traditionally entrenched, but persuasive nonetheless. Women were pictured in graceful, domestic or maternal stances - and as is often the case in artistic representation, displayed for the viewer in representations far more sexualized than any pragmatic male nudity: often erring towards fantasy (Cresswell, 2006, p65)Therefore white male athletic bodies and female sexualized domestic bodies represented racial stereotypes and social hierarchies just as clearly as images of Ben Bailey. Indeed, these were ideals consolidated by a final set of human bodies represented by Muybridge?s motion studies, those of disabled people - represented in a particularly scientistic and objective manner.



The body temperature after walking




How our body temperature changes after walking 30 minutes.




How our body temperature changes after walking 5 minutes with sandals ( left row ) and wooden clogs ( right row)





Filopino shoe designer Kermit Tesoro




Neta Soreq

My shoe design came from studying about hyper-actives people with a focus on different therapy treatments that direct the energy in the body. I was inspired by the structure of the muscles and the natural movement of the foot in different positions. The spring heel has a mechanism which acts as a shock absorber, and gives the wearer a new walking experience. The wearer doesn?t feel the pain and pressure that occurs because of the incline of a high heel shoe that has a fixed heel. The shoes can also help people with knee and back problems.



Cheamin Hong

London based footwear designer Chaemin Hong uses 3D printing in the design of her A/W 2013-14 collection, which consists of 10 different styles of future-forward pumps. "The collection is inspired from animal's bone." says the designer. Hong said her design is just combination of the dismantled bones. The concept that got started with the concept of new creations, sought to re-create the feel and shape by using diverse techniques. Digital imaging and 3D printing helps the designer to provide products with very distinct tastes without any limitation.



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Weiss Orthopaedics Design Project

When Dr. Noah Weiss approached me about redesigning his practice website he was very clear that he wanted something very interactive and fun, not just another boring doctor's website. I was up to the challenge, and luckily working with a clever client. Effectively using motion on the site was important to us form the beginning. Dr. Weiss suggested to me that we use fluoroscopy images to show joints in motion I knew that this was a perfect use case for one of my favorite internet mediums: the gif.





Internal Structure of the feet

The skeleton of the foot begins with the talus, or ankle bone, that forms part of the ankle joint. The two bones of the lower leg, the large tibia and the smaller fibula, come together at the ankle joint to form a very stable structure.

The two bones that make up the back part of the foot (sometimes referred to as the hindfoot) are the talus and the calcaneus, or heel bone. The talus is connected to the calcaneus at the subtalar joint. The ankle joint allows the foot to bend up and down. The subtalar joint allows the foot to rock from side to side.


Just down the foot from the ankle is a set of five bones called tarsal bones that work together as a group. 

These bones are unique in the way they fit together. There are multiple joints between the tarsal bones. When the foot is twisted in one direction by the muscles of the foot and leg, these bones lock together and form a very rigid structure. When they are twisted in the opposite direction, they become unlocked and allow the foot to conform to whatever surface the foot is contacting.


The tarsal bones are connected to the five long bones of the foot called the metatarsals. The two groups of bones are fairly rigidly connected, without much movement at the joints.



Our feet are made up of 26 bones and more than 33 joints arranged in columns and arches that vary in stiffness and flexibility. Many common problems can occur in this complicated area.

The foot is usually separated into three different parts:

The back of your foot (hindfoot) is made up of your heel bone (calcaneus) and your ankle (talus). They?re joined together by your subtalar joint, which allows your foot to move from side to side.

Your ankle bone is joined to your leg bones (tibia and fibula) at your ankle joint, which acts like a hinge. This allows your foot to bend up and down.

The middle of your foot (midfoot) is made up of five tarsal bones. These form the arch of your foot. Your tarsal bones are connected to the front and back of your foot by muscles and the arch ligament (the plantar fascia). They act as shock absorbers when we?re walking or running.

The front of your foot (forefoot) is made up of your toe bones (phalanges), which are connected to five long bones (metatarsals) by joints. The joints in your toes don?t move very much. Your forefoot takes half of your body?s weight.

The muscles in your lower leg are attached to bones in your feet by tendons, and they control movement that allows us to stand, walk, go on tiptoes and jump. These muscles move your toes and control the position of your foot as it hits the ground, allowing it to become flexible and cushioning the impact. They also make the arches of your feet more rigid to push your body forward when you move.

Your heel bone is connected to the calf muscles in your lower leg by your Achilles tendon, which is the most important tendon for movement. The tibialis posterior tendon, which attaches the underside of your foot to your lower leg, helps supports the arch of your foot and allows you to turn it inward.

The main nerve of your foot controls the muscles in your sole and gives feeling here and to your toes. Other nerves give feeling to the top and outside edge of your foot.

- See more at: http://www.arthritisresearchuk.org/arthritis-information/surgery/foot-and-ankle-surgery/how-do-the-feet-and-ankles-work.aspx#sthash.xBGPMA4y.dpuf



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Yuima Nakazato

The idea for Nakazato's newest collection came from the concept of clothing as an "extension of the body." His pieces feature transparent and rubber-like materials that represent muscle fiber. For this imaginary game, Nakazato designed a uniform and used the 3D Printer to design bibs that combine numbers and images of human muscles.



  Jean Paul Gaultier human body stocking at Montreal art museum


Jean Paul Gaultier


The French designer gives body suit a whole new meaning by constructing clothing that resembles human musculature complete with veins and internal organs.

 This trio of Gaultier creation's displayed together on a rotating platform? show how the designer's corsets are inspired by the lines of the human form.